Recently, low-carb diets, intermittent fasting and even long-term fasting (bigu) have become very Popular, their commonality is Can make the body enter the so-called ketosis. In this state, most of the energy needed by the human body to function comes from fat-fat ingested through diet or Fats already in the body. Ketogenesis refers to the breakdown of fat into ketones in the human body. These ketones (or ketone bodies) are usually regarded as an alternative energy because Ketones can provide energy for most body tissues, including the brain, just like glucose. In order to enter or maintain ketosis, the proportion of protein and carbohydrates in the daily calories required by the human body must not exceed 20% and %5. Unfortunately, there are a lot of misunderstandings about ketones, and most people think Ketosis is an unnatural dangerous state, only when people are hungry Or when you have diabetes… So in this video, I will remove these misunderstandings and explain Why is it absolutely natural to enter the state of ketogenic fat burning, and the ketone ratio Carbohydrates are more suitable as the main body Energy source.
There are so many misunderstandings about why ketones, let us first Learn a piece of historical facts about the thymus. Around the 18th-19th centuries, the cadavers needed for anatomical research were difficult to obtain. People don't want to see their loved ones who have just passed away being cut and examined. So anatomists will hire professional corpse thieves Excavate the corpse of the deceased who was buried soon. Sometimes, these corpse thieves even wait near the funeral to take the opportunity Robbery. Therefore, the rich will buy lockable coffins and even Hire armed bodyguards to protect the graves of dead relatives. The Anatomy Act passed in 1832 even stipulated that if the poor died or their relatives were unable to Pay his medical expenses, then the corpse of the deceased can be immediately handed over to the anatomist do research.
This means that anatomists are very likely to get involved in those The corpses of the deceased from poor families who could not pay for medical expenses. So, why do you talk about the thymus? The poor have a hard life, so they face Too much pressure, And it is long-term pressure. Nowadays, we all know that if people are under long-term stress, they will suffer from all kinds of Disease and stress can also cause certain organs to shrink. Take the thymus as an example. Pressure can cause it to shrink by 75%. So, the so-called normal thymus recorded in those anatomy books, Its size has actually been severely reduced. In the early 19th century, a German anatomist named Paltauf tried to find the cause of sudden infant death syndrome Cause. Many babies in upper-middle class families have died of this disease. So, by examining these dead babies, Paltauf found that their thymus Unusually large.
He concluded from this that if they don’t want their children to die from this disease, parents should let their children receive radiotherapy. The thymus gland becomes smaller by radiation. Before 1920, all mainstream pediatric textbooks recommended this treatment for this disease. Of course, Paltauf didn’t realize it, he just saw those Children who have not suffered from chronic poverty Thymus.
Unfortunately, this wrong treatment lasted until around 1950, and by then thousands of people had died This kind of radiation therapy. So, what does this have to do with ketones? The reason why there are so many misunderstandings about ketones has a lot to do with how they were discovered. Physicians first discovered ketones in the second half of the 19th century. They were in a drowsy diabetic A large amount of ketones was detected in his urine. At that time, the medical profession believed that the overproduction of ketones in the patient’s body caused The main cause of symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. So for half a century, ketones have been considered as a phenomenon of carbon source utilization damage Negative product.
With the improvement of analytical technology, we have realized that ketone bodies are just The normal part of blood is nothing more. Even if you are not in a ketogenic state, ketone bodies are also present in health In human blood, and the longer the fasting time, the greater the number. Without eating overnight, ketones will provide 2-6% of the energy required by the human body. If you do not eat for 3 days, this proportion will reach 30-40%. The state of ketosis entered through fasting or diet is completely different from ketoacidosis caused by diabetes. Ketoacidosis produces ketone levels much higher than The amount that can be achieved by fasting even for several weeks. Worrying about entering a state of ketoacidosis through fasting or diet is tantamount to worrying Eating at a sushi restaurant and causing a brief coma is like a naughty bet Drink a bottle of soy sauce like that. Normal people not only have ketones at any time in the body, but research has found that Certain human tissues "like" ketones more.
In fact, as stated in the biochemistry textbook published by WH Freeman: "Fatty acids are the main fuel for the heart. Ketone bodies, like lactate, can be used as Fuel for the heart muscle. Compared with glucose, the heart muscle is more willing to use acetoacetate (a ketone body) as its power fuel. " In fact, some people enter ketosis intentionally Refreshing. A Cambridge University study showed that the ketogenic diet “improved The physical fitness and cognitive function of mice, the energy-saving properties of this diet Perhaps it is helpful to eliminate a series of symptoms in patients with metabolic disorders.
" I think Plato himself realized this, when he said: "I want to gain more energy And fasting. " For a long time, people have generally believed that the brain can only operate on glucose (carbohydrates). Fasting to improve cognitive ability sounds ridiculous. In 1976, George Cahill of Harvard Medical School and his team confirmed that the brain Ketone bodies can be used as an energy source. He found that in a hungry state, the brain and surrounding tissues use ketones as the main energy source. And two thirds of the energy used by the brain comes from Ketone body. Nevertheless, even if you don't eat anything, the human body still needs some glucose. For example, because there are no mitochondria involved in metabolism, red blood cells Ketone bodies cannot be used as energy sources. However, the glucose needed by the whole body can be Synthesized in the body, for example, from the glycerol main bond of fat to produce glucose. So even if you fast for a long time, the body can maintain a stable blood sugar level. This also shows that the human body does not need to obtain glucose (carbohydrates) from the diet. Of course, because vegetables and some fruits contain various micronutrient elements and fiber, they are very important to the human body, but among them The carbohydrates contained are not needed by the human body.
I’m not saying that a zero-carb diet is the best, I just want to say If you eat enough fat and protein, your body may not need carbohydrates in your diet. The essential amino acids and fatty acids must be from Obtained from meals. However, no carbohydrates are necessary for the human body because the human body You can synthesize the glucose you need by yourself. In fact, without consuming dietary carbohydrates, the brain can rely solely on ketones to function efficiently. Even if the glucose in the human body is exhausted, it will not cause any Negative impact. A paper published in 1972 records a ethical study in which a group of overweight patients were fasted After 2 months, they entered the ketogenic state and they produced A lot of ketone bodies. Then, these patients were injected with insulin and their blood sugar levels dropped to 9 milligrams per deciliter-a level sufficient to cause coma or death. However, these patients had no adverse reactions.
Their cognitive abilities have not been reduced as a result, and their bodies have not responded to such low blood sugar levels. React. "The people in the room with fast heartbeats, sweating, and nervousness are the physicians. Patients whose blood sugar levels are so low that they can coma or even die Instead of being indifferent, The mental state is completely normal. This clearly shows that the human brain can completely use β-hydroxybutyrate as its The main or even the only fuel.
" In fact, anyone who watches this video has had at least one similar experience in their body: Blood sugar levels are very low, and at the same time the utilization of ketones It's very high again. It is estimated that the proportion of the energy consumption of the newborn’s brain accounts for the entire body 60-71%. For adults, this proportion is only 25%. Although the brain energy consumption of newborns is so huge, their blood sugar levels are as low as 35 mg per deciliter. This number is only half of the lower blood sugar levels in adults. This means that most of the energy needed by the newborn’s brain comes from Ketone body. According to Dr. Zongda Tetsuo-Director of Yasuko Obstetrics Clinic in Japan-the book "Health Potential in Ketone Body", Regardless of whether carbohydrate intake is restricted or not, pregnant women Higher than normal levels of ketones are produced in the body. By comparing maternal blood with neonatal cord blood, Zongtian Tetsuo found that Among all 416 newborns, 70% of infants have ketone levels even higher than Its maternal level.
By analyzing the villi that connect maternal blood and fetal membranes, Zongtian Zhenan inferred that from the time the mother is conceived, the fetus must live with a higher ketone body level Environment. Even one month after birth, the baby’s average blood ketone level is 5 times that of ordinary people. Zong Tian Tetsuo wrote in his book: "Newborns live on ketone bodies!" Ketones not only provide energy for newborns, but also in the brain Plays an important role in development. It turns out that exercise is good for the brain because exercise can improve Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, a type that can promote new brain cells Growing protein. Therefore, Dr. John Ratey of Harvard Medical School gave BDNF a nickname: "The Melody of the Brain" However, the mechanism of how exercise triggers BDNF has been to It was only after Dr.
Sama Sleiman, assistant professor of biochemistry, published a related paper last year Become clear. I think the title of the paper is clear at a glance: "Through the ketone body β-hydroxybutyric acid activity, exercise can promote Brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression" Broadly speaking, brain development is extremely important-precisely because of the growth of a "big" brain, we Is called human. When it comes to human evolution, efficiency is the most critical. In other words, our body must have energy extraction and utilization Ways to support the energy-hungry brain.
As a compromise, the gastrointestinal system must be small, which also means that the brain needs More energy. As stated in an article entitled "Fat Hunter" in the collection of the National Public Science Library, in order to "Meeting the brain’s high metabolic expenditure and reducing the size of the stomach It's a must. …The shorter human gastrointestinal system has evolved to be more dependent on nutrition/energy than other primates Intensive food. The smaller gastrointestinal system is less efficient in the process of extracting sufficient nutrients and energy from fibrous food. So it is more dependent on higher density/higher bioavailability food, Because digesting this kind of food requires less energy per unit of energy/nutrient. This also means that fat is an important food source because fat is very energy-intensive. Each gram of fat can provide 9 calories. But the efficiency of using fat as fuel does not depend solely on calories. Moreover, the brain’s intelligence is not only determined by size, It also depends on the efficiency of blood circulation and oxygen utilization. Roger Seymour of the University of Adelaide and his team found that the blood flow to the brain is The growth rate in the past 3 million years has been unexpected.
Seymour said: "Although the size of the brain has increased by 3.5 times, the blood flow is amazing." This has increased by 6 times, from approximately 1.2 milliliters per second to 7 milliliters per second. …This shows that the oxygen demand of our brain is that of our ancestors 6 times, it must be because our cognitive ability is stronger, so we also need more energy. " This means that the fuel vital to the brain must It has the characteristics of efficient use of oxygen. And this is what Ketone is good at. In 1994, Dr. Richard L Veech's research found that injecting ketone bodies into the heart of mice caused a 25% increase in fluid pressure. However, oxygen consumption will drop. In response to this phenomenon, Theodore Vanltallie explained in his paper published in 2003, The ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate increases the energy production efficiency of cell mitochondria. If you are educated in the United States and have taken even one day of biology class, you will know Mitochondria are the "cell's power plant".
But will this efficiency increase happen in the brain cell "power plant"? Vanitallie said: "Through the study of hungry obese subjects, it was found that their cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption levels Far below the normal level of the corresponding indicators of the adult brain… Using keto acid instead of glucose as the main energy source will increase The metabolic efficiency of the brain. " Those who have experienced long-term fasting sometimes claim that on the 6th or 7th day of fasting, they experience euphoria or mental disorders Clear feeling-the concentration of ketone bodies in the brain at this time Very high: about more than 5 millimoles per liter, It varies from person to person. In general, ketone bodies may be the most willing fuel source for the brain, because compared with glucose, ketone bodies use the same amount of oxygen. Can provide more energy for cells. Use the same amount of oxygen to obtain more energy through the ketone body, which is beneficial to the brain Development and functioning are essential.
Part of the research work of Dr. Dominic D'Agostino's is the subject of How to efficiently use oxygen through ketone bodies in cells. His research involves the potential of ketones in treating the following diseases: Epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's and even certain cancers. His initial research was funded by the U.S. Office of Naval Research to improve The diving capabilities of the Navy SEALs. By entering the ketogenic state, Dr. D'Agostino, without any prior training, Doubled his breath holding time from 2 minutes to 4 minutes. This visually demonstrates how ketones use oxygen High efficiency. All in all, when the fasting time is long enough and the intake of protein and carbohydrates is appropriately restricted, Our body will break down fat and produce ketone bodies- The most efficient fuel available for human use.
The human brain needs a lot of blood, oxygen and energy at all times-these all need fuel to continuously push- Anything that can enhance energy efficiency is good for people with big heads It’s important to humans. Although there is evidence that our body and brain are actually more inclined to use ketones, ketosis Still misunderstood as a potentially dangerous state. Back to the story of the thymus, if there were anatomical data of healthy children, the thymus of those who died There will be no unnecessary radiation "treatment".
And ketones, if the first-hand data about ketones is not from diabetes, but from A healthy pregnant woman or newborn, people’s understanding of ketones It will be very different..